Today, Android is a most using operating system in the world. It was founded by Andy Rubin in 2003 and then incorporated as Android in Palo Alto, California. Later in 17th August 2005, Google acquired Android and then it’s incorporated. Google has made its subsidiary for the Android operating system, until now. Google has announced the development of Android Operating System in 2007 and after first android mobile was launched by HTC in 2008. Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Chris White and Nick Sears are the key employees and the founders of Android Incorporation. Android, the name has come from the name of its founder Andy Rubin.
It has been nearly 10 years, the Android phone has made its official debut for consumers. Google decided to make the Android operating system by using Linux and offered highly popular third-party phone makers as free of its manufacturing and it becomes open source OS. Now Android Operating System became the most popular mobile OS in the world. Android OS defeating its many competitors like Symbian, BlackBerry, Palm OS, web OS, and Windows Phone. But Apple’s iOS is standing as a serious competitor to Android OS.
Instead of Android, most of the public used the term “Smartphone “ on initial days. Android Operating System was originally developed to improve the operating systems of digital cameras which would connect to a PC wirelessly. It had the feature of storing the photos of camera owner’s through online on a cloud server by connecting to an “Android Data Center”. Later the same digital camera’s was developed in Android cell phones.
Android has been transformed visually, conceptually and functionally from its release to today and it is most popular as ever evolved over the years. Now Android OS technology runs on over 400 million devices worldwide.
Versions of Android OS
Android operating system developed in various versions and had different code names. Here in this article, you may find the list of android versions released as on Today. Android code names are generated in alphabetical order from A to P, such as Aestro, Blender, Cupcake, Donut, Eclair, Froyo, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, Ice cream Sandwich, Jelly Bean, KitKat, and Lollipop.
But initially, the history of the Android mobile OS versions began with Android beta. After Google released commercial versions of Android 1.0, 1.1 and Application programming interface (API) levels.
|Code name||Version number||Initial released date||API level|
|Petit Four||1.1||February 9,2009||2|
|Eclair||2.0 – 2.1||October 26,2009||5 – 7|
|Froyo||2.2 – 2.2.3||May 20,2010||8|
|Gingerbread||2.3 – 2.3.7||December 6,2010||9 – 10|
|Honeycomb||3.0 – 3.2.6||February 22,2011||11– 13|
|Ice cream sandwitch||4.0 – 4.0.4||October 18,2011||14 – 15|
|Jelly Bean||4.1 – 4.3.1||July 9,2012||16 – 18|
|KitKat||4.4 – 4.4.4||October 31,2013||19 – 20|
|Lollipop||5.0 – 5.1.1||November 12,2014||21 – 22|
|Marshmallow||6.0 – 6.0.1||October 5,2015||23|
|Nougat||7.0 – 7.1.2||August 22,2016||24 – 25|
|Oreo||8.0 – 8.1||August 21,2017||26 – 27|
|Android P||Unknown||July 2,2018||28|
Android version 1.0
Version 1.0 was the first commercial version of Android, released in September 2008. The first Android phone in the world conceived, whether the HTC dream handset. Version 1.0 made with basic features, but they still exist today. Some of the features are a Simple web browser which supports Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Maps, YouTube, Instant messaging app, media player, Camera support, WiFi, Bluetooth, gallery.
Android version 1.1
Android 1.1 was released in February 9,2009. It was unofficially named as Petit Four. Android 1.1 was mainly developed for improving the API and update or fixing the resolved bugs. In this version, some new features were implemented, where it has the ability to save attachments in messages and reviews available on Google Maps when a user searches for businesses on maps it enables the venues and locations details.
Android version 1.5: Cupcake
Version 1.5 update was officially released on April 27, 2009, and this version released with a codename on the first official release. It had the codename based on the dessert item. This version included several new features and made everything more stable and secure. Android 1.5 allowed the user to use different keyboards as virtual which includes dictionaries for text prediction. In this version, Android OS introduced widgets for your home screen, video recording and it could be shared via MMS and email and music player which support for MPEGs and 3GP formats. Cupcake introduced the animation screen transitions, Auto rotation option when you turn on your phone and new stock boot animation.
Android version 1.6: Donut
Donut is the 4th version of the mobile Android OS. Donut made to improve the search functionality and sharpen the pixel screens for resolutions like 800×480. Donut android supported the CDMA smartphones, enlarge the screen sizes, indicate the battery usage, and enable the text-to-speech engine. It enhances the more Wi-Fi security options and supports for Virtual Private Network (VPN). Top paid, Top free and newly released app categories are introduced by Donut for user-friendly operations.
Android version 2.0: Eclair
Eclair released in October 2009 and based on SDK it supports for multiple desktops. Android 2.0 upgraded to account synchronizing and enabling simultaneously to add multiple users email and contact accounts to one device. This version is the integration of 2.0 and 2.1. Eclair allowed the numerous functions of the insert and delete options for messages and files. It increased the camera functions like white balance, zoom with double tap and editing.
Android version 2.2: Froyo
Froyo, the android version 2.2 updated on may, 2010 with the improvement of speed and stability of user interface. This Android OS consists of more RAM for optimizing memory to freed up apps usage. By using voice typing and search, the Android users can control their phones without touching them. Google improved the system performance through Froyo by integrating ‘Just-in-time’ (JIT) compilation. It helps to speed up the applications six times faster than the previous version.
Android version 2.3: Gingerbread
Gingerbread was launched in December 2010. Gingerbread is the integration of versions 2.3 and 2.3.7. Gingerbread introduced to support near-field communication (NFC) which used in mobile payment solutions. 2.3 Android operating system made with a protocol named as Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) used in VoIP internet telephony. Gingerbread enhanced the contrast of notifications bar, menus, and components of other users interfaces. It made the system more efficient to use all the newly added features. The most popular feature of camera first introduced by Gingerbread as Selfie camera.
Android version 3.0: Honeycomb
Honeycomb was released in February 2011. This is the only version specifically designed for large screen devices called tablets. Later 3.1 and 3.2 are launched subsequently but Honeycomb remained an entity exclusively for tablets. A dramatically re-imagined User Interface (UI) for Android was introduced by Honeycomb under the guidance of Chief Matias Duarte. It made with a “holographic” user interface designed for screen space on tablets. Honeycomb was the first software made with on-screen buttons to perform navigational commands related to UI. Honeycomb is the 8th Android operating system. The main features of this Android are multi-tasking, notifications, widgets. And customizable home screens are helpful to the user to access all parts of the system and installed apps. Honeycomb tablet users can download third-party applications by accessing the Android marketplace.
Android 3.1 Honeycomb updated on May at Google IO. It was designed with the features of the Instant run, Intelligent code editor, Fast and rich emulator, and flexible UI. It supports the Adobe Flash Player and USB connected devices.
Android version 4.0: Ice cream sandwich
Ice cream sandwich started its debut in October 2011 on the Samsung Galaxy Nexus Smartphone. Ice cream sandwich introduced some refined visual concepts like swipe away the things like notifications and recent apps. The operating system allows users to unlock their phones via facial recognition. It enables the near-field communication (NFC) support likeable to transfer files from one android to another android UI through Android Beam. The most popular feature is “facial unlock” whether the users get security for their device.
Android versions 4.1 to 4.3: Jelly Bean
Google announced Android 4.1 in July 2012. It releases with spanning versions between 4.1 and 4.3.1. Jelly Bean designed with a most advanced system such as multi-tasking and multiuser support. This Android version 4.1 improves the performance of the device by including lower touch latency, CPU input boost and triple buffering. Android 4.2 Jelly Bean supports “Daydream” screensavers, multiple user accounts, group messing. Later version 4.3 Jelly Bean released in 2013. Version 4.3 introduced many new features like Bluetooth control protocols, optimized locations through sensor capability.
Android version 4.4: KitKat
Android 4.4 was updated in October 2013. It is the 10th major version of Android named as KitKat. KitKat was the first version of Android to support “OK, Google” to activate the search as a hands-free prompt. KitKat primarily focused on optimizing the operating system with limited resources to improve the performance on entry-level devices. It introduced a new runtime environment (ART), Bluetooth Message Access Profile (MAP) support and wireless printing capability. Android 4.4 version exclusively released for wearable devices like Android smartwatches and supports GPS.
Android version 5.0: Lollipop
Google again reinvented and launched a new version 5.0 named as Lollipop. Lollipop was unveiled on November 2014. It build with a new model user interface design language termed as “material design”. Lollipop has the ability to display the applications within top-of the-screen banners. These changes intended to improve the application performance and optimize the battery usage and termed as Project Volta. Lollipop enhances the lock screen to show shortcuts of apps and notifications. Later Lollipop 5.5 introduced HD video calling. It officially designed for supporting multiple SIM cards.
Android version 6.0: Marshmallow
Marshmallow was released in October 2015. Marshmallows most popular feature is gaining the attention of users with Now-On Tap. Initially support for fingerprint recognition and USB- C connectors. It has the capability to migrate data and applications saved on micro SD card. Marshmallow is the most popular single version of the Android OS.
Android version 7.0: Nougat
Nougat was released in August 2016. Nougat 7.0 provided the Androids with a native split-screen mode. In addition, Nougat 7.0 introduced Data saver feature and inline replies to notifications, multi-language support and multi-window support. Later Nougat 7.1 was updated in October 2016. It includes smart storage manager with both automatic and manual cleaner options. And Nougat 7.1 introduces GIF support keyboards and image insertions.
Android version 8.0: Oreo
Oreo, the stable version released in August 2017. Oreo added a variety of features to Android platform, such as picture-in-picture mode for supporting video calls, snoozing option for notifications. Oreo is the 15th version of the Android operating system. Oreo 8.0 primarily focused on speed and efficiency. Oreo 8.0 includes Adaptive icons and 2 times faster boot time. Later Android 8.1 was launched and mostly concentrated on pixel phones. Oreo 8.1 has automatic light and dark themes and some visual changes of power on/off and restart options. Oreo is the latest Android version running across the world now.
Android version 9.0: ‘P’
Android P is the upcoming version of Google’s Android operating system. Version 9.0 introduces gesture-based commands and digital wellbeing world for users. It enhances the privacy and security of devices. Google announced that the third Beta is available in Android P. It includes some new features lockdown mode, Wind Down option, multitask app switcher.
As the production and sale of Android phones increase day by day, we can expect more advanced and feature-rich versions to be released from Google.